MULTI-HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEMS - New Energy Lab - All you need to know
1500W Solar, 300W Wind, 1200W Fuel Cell, 3x 800nl/h H2 Storage, 72nl/h Electrolyze, Energy Management, Tie Grid, Batteries, Converter, API
- First fully integrated autonomous hybrid clean energy training system
- Combination of energy generation (PV + Wind + PEM Fuel Cell), energy storage (Batteries + Hydrogen Generator + metal hydride canisters), power management, inverter, converter and API.
- Includes up to 30 experiments for the purpose of training and applied research
- Set up of an autonomous power supply to study the interrelationships of power management by experimenting with the parameters of the system components
- Monitoring Software for data logging, analysis and visualization
Main topics in the field of energy, hydrogen, chemical processes clearly and in one place.
Renewables Basics Training click here to download
- Energy Types
- Energy Conversion Types
- Exergy and Anergy
- Thermal Engine
- Condensing Boiler vs. Heat Pump
- Fluctuating Renewable Energy
- Electric Consumers
- Example: Battery Power Plants
- Example: Hybrid Power Plant
- Example: Integration of Power-to-Gas (P2G)
- Example: New Energy Lab: Grid-coupled Island
- Balance of Energy Generation and Usage
- Energy Balance Control
- Energy Source Types
- Characteristics of Renewable Energy Sources
- Energy Sink Types
- Electric Consumers Categories
- Generator-Battery-Hybrid Energy System
Solar: Photovoltaic Energy click here to download
- Photovoltaic Cell
- Solar Cell – Layers of a Typical Silicon Cell
- Solar Cell Solid State Physics – Band Structure
- Solar Spectrum
- Solar Spectrum and Spectral Response
- Solar Energy - Irradiation
- Photovoltaic Cell Types
- PV Cell Theory: 1-Diode-Model
- Characteristic Curves of PV Cells
- Temperature Dependency of the PV Cell Output Power
- Solar Energy - Irradiation
- PV Installation: Orientation of PV Modules to the Sun, Solar Constant, Air Mass
- NEL Experiment S03 Characteristics of the PV System - Different Angles
- NEL Experiment S06 Day Profiles
- Photovoltaic System Components
- Maximum Power Point and MPP Tracking
- Photovoltaic System Topologies - Residential
- Parallel and Serial Configuration of PV Modules
- (Partial) Shading of PV Modules, Bypass Diodes
- NEL Solar PV Energy Experiments
- NEL Experiment S04: Effects of Shading on the Photovoltaic System
- NEL Experiment S05: Total Efficiency of the Photovoltaic System
Renewable Energies & NEL Training – Electrolysis
Renewables Basics Training
- Chemical Equation
- Hydrogen Production
- Electrolysis Reactions
- Technical Data
- Water Quality
- Electrolysis in the Industry
- Gas purity
- NEL Experiment F03: Efficiency of the Hydrogen Generator System
Electrolysis of water is used to produce hydrogen:
2 H2O(l) → 2 H2(g) + O2(g); E0 = -1.229 V
Where does the hydrogen come from?
Electrolysis can be entirely nonpolluting and renewable, but it requires large amounts of electrical energy.
In electrolysis, electricity is used to decompose water into its elemental components: hydrogen and oxygen.
Electrolysis is often touted as the preferred method of hydrogen production as it is the only process that need not rely on fossil fuels.
Electrolysis results in high product purity, and is feasible on small and large scales.
Electrolysis can operate over a wide range of electrical energy capacities, for example, taking advantages of more abundant electricity at night.
The reactions are:
OH– OH + e–
a negatively charged hydroxyl ion is oxidized
K+ + e– K
a positively charged potassium ion is reduced
(2) OH ½H2O + ½O
the ion reacts to form water and an oxygen atom
K + H2O K+ + H + OH–
the ion reacts with water to form a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl ion
(3) O + O O2
the highly reactive oxygen atom then bonds to the metal of the anode and combines with another bound oxygen atom to form an oxygen molecule that leaves the anode as a gas
H + H H2
the highly reactive hydrogen atom then bonds to the metal of the cathode and combines with another bound hydrogen atom to form a hydrogen molecule that leaves the cathode as a gas
At the heart of electrolysis is an electrolyzer. An electrolyzer is a series of cells each with a positive and negative electrode. The electrodes are immersed in water that has been made electrically conductive, achieved by adding hydrogen or hydroxyl ions, usually in the form of alkaline potassium hydroxide (KOH).
The anode (positive electrode) is typically made of nickel and copper and is coated with oxides of metals such asmanganese, tungsten and ruthenium. The anode metals allow quick pairing of atomic oxygen into oxygen pairs at the electrode surface.
The cathode (negative electrode) is typically made of nickel, coated with small quantities of platinum as a catalyst. The catalyst allows quick pairing of atomic hydrogen into pairs at the electrode surface and thereby increases the rate of hydrogen production. Without the catalyst, atomic hydrogen would build up on the electrode and block current flow.
A gas separator, or diaphragm, is used to prevent intermixing of the hydrogen and oxygen although it allows free passage of ions. It is usually made of an asbestos-based material, and tends to break apart above 176 ºF (80 ºC).
1 mol Water = 18 g
100 ml = 5.6 mol
2H2O = 2H2 + O2
1 mol Water >> 1 mol Hydrogen
1 mol = 22.4 l under Standard Test Conditions (STC)
5.6 mol H2 = 125.4 l
1 l Water = 1254 l Hydrogen + 627 l Oxygen
15 NL/min @1200W = 1000 l/h
i.e. 1.5h operation time with 3 metal hydride canisters
- Measured by conductivity, µS/cm
- SI unit: 1/(Ohm*Meter)
- Conductivity is linked directly to total dissolved solids
- High quality deionized water has a conductivity of about 5.5 μS/m,
- Typical drinking water in the range of 5-50 mS/m
- Sea water has about 5 S/m (i.e., sea water's conductivity is one million times higher than deionized water (source: Wikipedia)
Electrolysis in the Industry
- Fuel cells need hydrogen 5.5 i.e. 99,9995 %
- Hydrogen generators generate hydrogen 6.0 i.e. 99.9999%.
NEL Experiment F03: Efficiency of the Hydrogen Generator System